- A – Attention (Awareness): attract the attention of the customer.
- I – Interest: raise customer interest by focusing on and demonstrating advantages and benefits (instead of focusing on features, as in traditional advertising).
- D – Desire: convince customers that they want and desire the product or service and that it will satisfy their needs.
- A – Action: lead customers towards taking action and/or purchasing.
Using a system like this gives one a general understanding of how to target a market effectively. Moving from step to step, one loses some percent of prospects.
AIDA is a historical model, rather than representing current thinking in the methods of advertising effectiveness.
The term and approach are commonly attributed to American advertising and sales pioneer, E. St. Elmo Lewis. In one of his publications on advertising, Lewis postulated at least three principles to which an advertisement should conform:
The mission of an advertisement is to attract a reader, so that he will look at the advertisement and start to read it; then to interest him, so that he will continue to read it; then to convince him, so that when he has read it he will believe it. If an advertisement contains these three qualities of success, it is a successful advertisement
- S – Satisfaction – satisfy the customer so they become a repeat customer and give referrals to a product.
One significant modification of the model was its reduction to three steps (CAB):
- Cognition (Awareness or learning)
- Affect (Feeling, interest or desire)
- Behavior (Action).
Along with these developments came a more flexible view of the order in which the steps are taken, suggesting that different arrangements of the model might prove more effective for different consumer-to-product relationships.
Additionally, as experts have examined this theory more defined practices and theories have been developed including the T.I.R.E.A. scale that focuses on breaking down the decision making process into more defined components. Each step focuses on a progressive journey through the decision making process.
- T – Thought
- I – Interest (Desire)
- R – Risk (Evaluation)
- E – Engagement
- A – Action
The Thought portion of the decision making process can occur randomly and be stimulated by a variety of stimuli but generates little of no attention by an individual. It simply creates an awareness of something but generate little or no interest. Similar to seeing food after one has become full after a meal… one may be aware of the food that is there but there is little need or interest in obtaining it.
Interest occurs when one wants or needs something – hunger is an example. The level of interest (or desire) increases as hunger and or the wants and desires increase.
Risk and its evaluation occur as interest increases. One may desire steak but withhold obtaining it due to cost, or other reasons (such as health related issues, etc.)
Engagement – An emotional response when Interest and Desires exceed Risks.
Action – A physical response to obtain what one wants and desires and is willing to assume the risks and/or costs in obtaining it.
REAN Another similar model REAN was also developed in 2006 to more specifically cater for the customer lifecycle. REAN is a marketing acronym that stands for;
- R – Reach – the set of activities needed to raise prospects’ attention for your brand, product or service
- E – Engage – the gradual, typically multi-channel, often recursive set of activities needed to engage the prospects you just won
- A – Activate – the activities needed for your prospects to take, eventually, the actions you wanted them to take
- N – Nurture – the activities needed to nurture the customer relationship you just managed to create